Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Springer, 2012
Cross-modal learning refers to any kind of learning that involves information obtained from more than one modality. In the literature the term modality typically refers to a sensory modality, also known as stimulus modality. A stimulus modality provides information obtained from a particular sensorial input, for example visual, auditory, olfactory, or kinesthetic information. Examples from artificial cognitive systems ("robots") include also information about detected range (by sonar or laser range-finders), movement (by odometry sensors), or motor state (by proprioceptive sensors). We adopt here the notion of modality that includes both the sensorial data, and further interpretations of that data within the modality. For example, from a pair of (depth-calibrated) images, a cloud of points in 3-dimensional space can be computed. We obtain both types of data (the image data, and the 3D points) from the same visual sensor. At the same time, they differ in what information they provide. We consider information sources derived from sensorial data as derived modalities that by themselves can be involved again in cross-modal learning.